http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/issue/feed JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 2022-12-10T01:07:38+00:00 Prof. Joshua O. Olaoye joolaoye@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>Welcome to JAET Homepage</strong>&nbsp;<br>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology</em>&nbsp;is peer referred journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. JAET is published by the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE), A Division of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE).</p> <p align="justify"><strong>p-ISSN:&nbsp; 014-2222| e-ISSN: 2651-558X</strong></p> <p align="justify"><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong>&nbsp;JUNE and DECEMBER</p> <p align="justify">JAET is currently indexed in&nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;view_op=list_works&amp;authuser=3&amp;gmla=AJsN-F5M4mo5aR-jaOeYTHiNGDn-IK2Taj64KWz8R5_pdgkC3vCq-TfMhEQQMdtXbAvAsL79cKxw0fKiNo6Iyirsbt83XmbEwKvDUxaVGL3SJCqRc_TGxi4&amp;user=zEqae_0AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></p> <p align="justify"><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br>The main aim of the Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET) is to provide a medium for dissemination of high quality Technical and Scientific information emanating from research on Engineering for Agriculture. This, it is hoped will encourage researchers in the area to continue to develop cutting edge technologies for solving the numerous engineering problems facing agriculture in the third world in particular and the world in general.<br>The Journal publishes original research papers, review articles, technical notes and book reviews in Agricultural Engineering and related subjects. Key areas covered by the journal are: Agricultural Power and Machinery; Agricultural Process Engineering; Food Engineering; Post-Harvest Engineering; Soil and Water Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Agricultural Structures and Environmental Control; Waste Management; Aquacultural Engineering; Animal Production Engineering and the Emerging Technology Areas of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Applications, Computer Based Simulation, Instrumentation and Process Control, CAD/CAM Systems, Biotechnology, Biological Engineering, Biosystems Engineering, Bioresources Engineering, Nanotechnology and Renewable Energy. The journal also considers relevant manuscripts from related disciplines such as other fields of Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Physical Sciences, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences.<br>The Journal is published by the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE), A Division of Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). The Editorial Board and NIAE wish to make it clear that statements or views expressed in papers published in this journal are those of the authors and no responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of such statements or views. In the interest of factual recording, occasional reference to manufacturers, trade names and proprietary products may be inevitable. No endorsement of a named product is intended nor is any criticism implied of similar products that are not mentioned.</p> <p>Submission of an article for publication implies that it has not been previously published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The Journal’s peer review policy demands that at least two reviewers give positive recommendations before the paper is accepted for publication. Prospective authors are advised to consult the Guide for Authors which is available in each volume of the Journal. Four copies of the manuscript should be sent to:<br>The Editor-In-Chief Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET)</p> <p>The Editorial Office Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering,&nbsp; Faculty of Engineering &amp; Technology, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria</p> http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/214 Determination of Some Physical Properties of Canarium Schweinfurthii Engl Nuts from Nigeria 2022-12-10T01:07:38+00:00 J. C. Ehiem chinaka71@yahoo.com V. I. O. Ndirika vndirika@yahoo.com U. N. Onwuka unonwuka@yahoo.com <p><em>Physical properties of </em><em>three varieties of Canarium schweinfurthii nuts (Canarium schweinfurthii short (CSHT</em><em><sub>S</sub></em><em>), Canarium schweinfurthii long (CSHT</em><em><sub>L</sub></em><em>) and Canarium schweinfurthii large (CSHT</em><em><sub>LRG</sub></em><em>)) were studied at three different moisture contents (10.20%, 17.23% and 25.06%) wet basis. The values of physical parameters studied were obtained experimentally and analyzed using ANOVA at 5% alpha level. The results showed that the principal dimensions of large nuts ranged from </em><em>32.29 - </em><em>32.91 mm (</em><em>major diameter</em><em>), </em><em>16.07 - </em><em>16.55 mm (</em><em>intermediate diameter</em><em>) and </em><em>15.69 - </em><em>16.26 mm (minor diameter).</em><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;The values of sphericity, mass and density of large nuts also ranged from </em><em>0.62 – 0.63, </em><em>4.32 - </em><em>4.90 g and 1.27 – 1.21 g/cm</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>&nbsp;respectively. The long nuts had </em><em>36.75 - 37.36 </em><em>mm (major diameter),</em><em>&nbsp;13.67 - 13.19 mm (</em><em>intermediate diameter</em><em>) and 13.18 - 12.89 mm (</em><em>minor diameter</em><em>)</em><em>. The sphericity ranged from</em><em>&nbsp;0.50 – 0.51, mass from 2.79 - 3.14 g and density from 1.14 – 1.07 gcm</em><em><sup>-3</sup></em><em>. &nbsp;The major diameter of the short nuts ranged from </em><em>23.26 - 23.87 mm, </em><em>intermediate diameter from</em><em>&nbsp;10.93 - 11.24 mm and minor diameter from 10.76 - 11.04 mm. The values of sphericity ranged from 0.60 – 0.62, mass from 1.21 - 1.43 g and density from 1.14 – 1.06 gcm</em><em><sup>-3</sup></em><em>. The nuts are oblong shaped with surface areas of 336.7 mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>, 301.55 mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;and 164.28 mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;for large, long and short varieties respectively. Moisture content had no effect on the geometric dimensions but significantly (5%) affected mass, density and surfaces area. The porosity of all the nut varieties studied decreased as moisture level increased and the density values were higher than one, hence cannot be separated by floating. Rubber surface had the highest coefficient of friction than the other material surfaces studied. All physical parameters investigated had good relationship (high R</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>&nbsp;values) with moisture content. </em><em>These results are essential in design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling this product.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/216 Investigating the Effect of Blade Cutting Angles of a Manual Hoe on Operator’s Heart Rate during Weeding Operations 2022-11-22T21:09:17+00:00 B. G. Jahun bgjahun@yahoo.com D. D. Usman ddusman@atbu.edu.ng J. A. Mustapha jmahmed88@gmail.com S. Adamu sayauadamu77@gmail.com S. A. Iya us5iya@mautech.edu.ng <p><em>The present findings focus on the assessment of manual hoe blade cutting angles on operator heart rate during weeding operation. Three hoe blades were developed with different blade cutting blade angles (65</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>, 75</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>, and 85</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>) using AutoCAD software and analyzed by 3D modeling. Heart rate (bpm) was measured using a polar heart rate monitor and recorded at rest, during the entire period of work and recovery thereafter for a period of 5 mins. Soil bulk density and moisture content (db) were determined using a standard method from literature. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was employed to evaluate the effect of hoe blade cutting angle, soil moisture content, soil bulk density and the operator’s height on the heart rate of the operator during weeding operations. Three levels of cutting angles (65</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>, 75</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>&nbsp;and 85</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>), bulk density (1.2, 1.3 and 1.5 g/cm</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>), moisture content (13, 15 and 18 %) and two different operator’s heights (1.56 and 1.65 m) making a 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment design and analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s Studentized Test mean comparison.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Results obtained show that mean heart rate increases with an increase in soil moisture content, soil bulk density and operator’s height respectively, but decreases with hoe blade cutting angle. The optimum heart rate of 84.24, 80.35, 72.01 and 74.61 bpm were obtained at 85</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>&nbsp;blade cutting angle, 15% soil moisture, 1.2 kg/m</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>&nbsp;bulk density and 1.56m operator’s height respectively. It was, however, recommended that a study on manual hoe be carried out to ascertain its effects on the weeding index, performance index and cost of operation.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/217 Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel Blends Derived from Mahogany (Khaya Senegalensis) Seed Oil for use as Alternative Fuel 2022-11-22T21:09:17+00:00 D. D. Usman ddusman@atbu.edu.ng O. U. Dairo dairoou@funaab.edu.ng O. J. Adeosun adeosunoj@funaab.edu.ng B. G. Jahun bgjahun@yahoo.com <p><em>Plants from different regions produce oils with characteristics that vary by wide margins and depend more on the regions in which the plants are grown than the species from which the oils are derived, most probably as a result of the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. This study aims at producing biodiesel by transesterification of Khaya Senegalensis seed oil (KSO) and the determination of physicochemical properties of the biodiesel blends, compared with ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Properties analyzed include: density, viscosity at 25</em><em><sup>o</sup></em><em>C, iodine value, saponification value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, free fatty acid, higher heating value and sulphur content. The transesterification reactions were maintained at the optimum process conditions of methanol/oil ratio 6:1, at 70˚C for 60 minutes at 0.84% (w/v) of catalyst concentration. A biodiesel yield of 89.50% was obtained. The results for density (844 – 837 kg/m</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>), kinematic viscosity (4.44 – 4.07 mm</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>/s), iodine value (92 - 127 mgI</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em>/100g), saponification value (11.22 – 36.47 Mg/KOHg), cloud points (9 - 14</em><em><sup>&nbsp;ᶱ</sup></em><em>C), pour points (11 - 19</em><em><sup>&nbsp;o</sup></em><em>C), flash points (110 - 190</em><em><sup>&nbsp;o</sup></em><em>C), acid value (0.21 – 0.78 Mg/KOHg) and the sulphur contents (2.15 – 2.86 mg/kg) of the biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 and B100) conformed with both the ASTM D6751and EN14214 standard, with higher heating value of the blends slightly above both standards. It was concluded that with the high yield and quality properties of the biodiesel blends, the potential of using KSO biodiesel blends as an alternative fuel on a diesel engine.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/218 Copper Removal Using Ochrobactrum Specie Isolated from Contaminated Wastewater 2022-11-22T21:09:17+00:00 Mohammed Umar Mustapha umardrc@gmail.com Normala Halimoon hmala@env.upm.edu.my <p><em>Bacterial and metal removal have received considerable attention recently, due to the potential use of microorganisms for treatment of contaminated wastewater. Removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from polluted wastewaters has appeared to be the potential alternative method for conventional treatment of contaminated wastewater. The purpose of the present work was to study the removal capacity of toxic metal from contaminated wastewater by using ochrobactrum sp. isolated from contaminated wastewater using different pH and temperature. Bacteria species have a high surface area to volume ratio, due to their small size and thus, they can offer a large contact interface that would interact with metals ion</em><em>. The results indicated that bacterial isolate Ochrobactrum sp. is a suitable biosorbent for the removal of Cu (II) ion from metal polluted wastewater and might be applicable to the development of possibly cheap biosorbent for removing and recovering copper from effluents.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/219 Determination of Crop and Machine Parameters Relevant to the Harvesting and Postharvest Handling of Acha 2022-11-22T21:09:17+00:00 U. I. Tanam isaactanam@gmail.com J. O. Olaoye jolanoye@unilorin.edu.ng <p><em>Acha (Digitaria species) is a cereal crop produced predominantly in Nigeria. Harvesting acha is still being done by traditional methods. Existing regular combines cannot be applied to acha harvesting due to its unique grain characteristics. Appropriate harvesters suited to the characteristics of acha seed are not available. The aim of this study was to determine some crop and machine Parameters (CMPs) relevant to acha harvesting. Machine parameters were determined from the known empirical equations for effective material capacity while standard laboratory investigations were conducted to determine crop parameter (Angle of Repose, Particle Density, Particle Size, Coefficient of Uniformity and Fineness Modulus). Results obtained showed that operating speed (V) (1, 3, 5 km/h), knife speed (S) (300, 400, 500 rpm) and reel index (I) (1.0, 1.25, 1.5) were critical parameters in the design of an acha harvester. Angle of repose, particle density, particle size, coefficient of uniformity and fineness modulus of acha were found to be 32.5°, 0.584 g/cm</em><em><sup>3</sup></em><em>, 0.60 mm, 1.62 and 1.22 respectively. Not considering these parameters in the design of acha harvesting and handling machines results in heavy grain losses. It is therefore recommended that information from this work be adopted in the design of acha handling machines.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/221 Influence of Tillage, Nutrient and Weed Management on Chemical Properties of Sandy-Loam Soil and Yield of Soybean 2022-12-01T20:25:18+00:00 E. O. Ariyo hariyo19@yahoo.com J. O. Olaoye jolanoye@unilorin.edu.ng S. N. Oyewole snoyeengr@gmail.com <p><em>Adoption of crop management practices that are directed at achieving a self-sustaining system for soil protection is critical to sustainable crop productions. The influence of four tillage depths&nbsp; (T<sub>1 </sub>= Disc plough and disc harrow at 25 cm depth, T<sub>2</sub> = Disc plough at 20 cm depth, T<sub>3</sub> = Double tillage pass of disc harrow (DDH) at 15 cm depth, T<sub>4</sub> =Single pass of disc harrow at 10 cm depth),three nutrient applications (N<sub>1</sub> = No nutrient application (Control),N<sub>2</sub>=&nbsp; Farm Yard Manure (FYM) at 0.5 ton/hectare (applied during tillage operation) + 50 kg/hectare of Superphosphate&nbsp; applied 4 weeks after sowing, N<sub>3</sub> = FYM at 1 ton/hectare (applied during tillage operation) + 75 kg/hectare of Superphosphate applied 4 Weeks After Planting) and four levels of weed management </em><em>(W<sub>1 </sub>= No weeding as control, W<sub>2 </sub>= 3 litres of pre-emergence at planting + Post-emergence (Fusillade forte) at 2.5 litres (0.14 kg/ha) of post emergence at 3WAP,W<sub>3 </sub>= 3 litres of pre-emergence + 3 litres (0.17kg/ha) of post emergence at 5WAP,W<sub>4</sub>= 3 litres of pre-emergence + 4 litres (0.23 kg/ha)of post emergence at 7WAP were used for the production soybean in 2018 and 2019 planting seasons. The results showed that tillage systems between 10-15 cm depth of cut favour availability and retention of soil nutrients within the tap root of soybean as in the case of T<sub>3</sub> (DDH at 15 cm) that recorded the highest mean values of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) (1.77), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) (1.40), total N (0.41%), available P of 4.82 ppm and exchangeable K of 0.22 C mol/Kg. In terms of nutrient application, N<sub>3</sub> had the highest SOM (1.90), Mg<sup>2+ </sup>(1.99), Ca<sup>2+</sup> (1.28), Total N (0.41), available P (4.48) and exchangeable K (1.32) during harvesting time. T<sub>3</sub> (DDH at 15 cm) had the highest mean values of pod/plant (74.78), 1000 seed weight (134.83g) and highest mean value of grain yield of 2.43 tons/ha, however, it was not significantly different from yield 0f 2.35 tons/ha &nbsp;obtained in T<sub>1 </sub>(Disc plough and disc harrow at 25 cm depth).Weed management practices did not significantly influence soil chemical properties soil p<sup>H</sup>, soil organic matter, soil organic carbon, Magnesium, Nitrogen and others chemical properties analysed for the soil were uniformly distributed among the treatment at p≤0.05<strong>. </strong>It is important that soybean farmers adopt management practices that are directed at achieving a self-sustaining system of the soil. Hence, tillage depth at 15 cm and minimum application of compost poultry manure are recommended for a sustainable soybean production.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/222 Impact of Magnetized Water on Compressive Strength and Durability of Sandcrete Block 2022-11-22T21:09:17+00:00 K. O. Yusuf yusuf.ok@unilorin.edu.ng H. O. Yakub yakubdayo@gmail.com A. K. Yusuf yusuf.ak@unilorin.edu.ng <p><em>Cases of collapse of buildings is common in Nigeria due to failure of materials used for the construction and poor design. Sandcrete block is commonly used for the construction of buildings in the country but the sandcrete blocks are normally fragile which demands ways to improve the strength of the sandcrete block. Magnetized water is water that has passed through a magnetic field which enhances proper hydration when it is used for producing sandcrete block and it has the ability to improve the strength of the block. The magnetic water treatment unit was fabricated using a broken permanent magnet from speaker with magnetic flux of 997 Gauss and neodymium magnet rated 1.3 T (1.3 x 10<sup>4</sup> G), a hose of 25.4 mm diameter, 25.4 mm diameter pipe, 50 litres storage bucket and water control tap. The magnetic treatment unit is 900 mm long with 450 mm hose surrounded by a broken magnet from speaker and a 450 mm long pipe surrounded by 12 pieces ofneodymium magnet. The magnetized water was treated for 11 s (T<sub>1</sub>), 33 s (T<sub>2</sub>) and 55 s (T<sub>3</sub>) but the control was non-magnetized water (T<sub>0</sub>). Dangote Portland cement and sand sieved through 4.75 mm were mixed (batching) and the ratio of cement to sand was 1 : 6 by weight and optimum moisture content used for producing the block was 9%. The solid sandcrete block (230 x 100 x 100 mm) was produced using a manually operated moulding block machine. The blocks with 3 replicate for each treatment were cured for 7, 14 and 28 days. After curing for 28 days, the force at peak, compressive strength were determined using Universal Testing Machine of capacity 300 kN (model FT300CT by Testometric Company Limited, United Kingdom). After curing for 28 days, the compressive strength for T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> were 2.358, 4.742, 3.406 and 4.903 N/mm<sup>2</sup>, respectively. The compressive strength for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> increased by 7.97 - 18.24, 17 - 39.51 and 44.44 - 107.93% after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively when compared to T<sub>0</sub>. Young’s modulus for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> increased by 41.74 – 74.48, 14.33 – 39.01 and 43.28 – 79.02% after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. The magnetized water increased the compressive strength of the sandcrete block and is recommended for producing sandcrete blocks in the country.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/223 Technological Capability of Small-Scale Oil Palm Fruit Processors in the Production of Special Palm Oil in Nigeria 2022-11-22T21:09:17+00:00 O. K. Owolarafe owolarafe@yahoo.com V. O. Okorie vicokoria@yahoo.com G. O. Binuyo gobinuyo@gmail.com B. S. Ogunsina bsogunsina@yahoo.com S. O. Obayopo sirajolanre@yahoo.com T. A. Morakinyo tmorakinyo@oauife.edu.ng I. A. Owolabi ibraheemakanni9@gmail.com G. A. Badmus abdulganiyubadmus@gmail.com I. O. Olaoye isaac.olaoye@tech-u.edu.ng <p><em>This study assessed the technological capabilities of oil palm fruit processors in Akwa Ibom, Edo, Imo, Kogi, Ondo, and Osun States, Nigeria. This is with the view to ascertaining the availability of appropriate technologies for production of special palm oil (SPO). Relevant data were collected from 307 respondents, who were selected by multistage sampling procedure. Appropriate descriptive statistics (frequency of observations, percentages and statistical significance) were used to summarise the data and deduce inferences. Many of the respondents were between 50 and 59 years age group (27.0%) and between 40 and 49 years of age (25.4%), which indicates that a significant number of the processors were adults. Majority (87.4%) of the mills were owned by single private actors. Many of the respondents (63.93%) did not know about SPO production. The most and least available equipment were vertical digester and centrifuge which were found amongst 62.5 and 0.98% of the processors, respectively.&nbsp; Availability of stripper (p &lt; 0.05), sterilizer (p &lt; 0.05), digester-screw press (p &lt; 0.05), centrifuge (p &lt; 0.05), and decanter (p &lt; 0.05) were associated with highest educational attainment of processors. The paper concluded that technological capability of SPO processors was very low; hence the need for interventions that would increase respondents’ awareness about appropriate technologies for SPO production. This promises great boost in obtainable income and job generation for key actors in the oil palm value chain.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/224 Assessment of the adsorbent capacity of sawdust briquette in treating crude oil contaminated water 2022-11-22T21:09:18+00:00 B. D. Odugbose odugbose.babashola@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. I. Dada oluwatunmise.id@gmail.com H. O. Adeyemi adeyemi.hezekiah@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng T. O. Opafola omobolaji.opafola@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng C. F. Emeadi chibuikeemeadi@gmail.com <p><em>In crude oil catchment areas of oil-producing countries, oil spillage is a serious environmental challenge. As a result, fertile agricultural lands get polluted and degraded, the morbidity of aquatic animals is rampant, and water is rendered unfit for drinking and general household usage. This work offers a solution to this environmental menace by utilizing sawdust briquettes as filter media in filter columns to purify crude oil-contaminated water. Subjecting both the oil-polluted water and treated water to total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) test and water quality test, the study investigated the effectiveness of using the filter columns and the suitability of using the treated water for irrigation purposes. From the results, the adsorption capacity was in the range of 2.86 and 4.01 g/g. It was established that the filter was very effective in treating oil-polluted water as the TPH concentration sharply reduced to about 96.1% from 32960 mg/L in the oil-polluted water to 1284 mg/L in the treated water. However, the reduced TPH, was above the EU EPA standard TPH level required for river and basin waters. The physicochemical properties for the treated water as compared with the oil-polluted water showed drastic EC<sub>w</sub> increase (172.13 ± 0.06 to 708.00 ± 114.59 µS/cm, depicting slight salinity), increased TDS (114.24 ± 0.01 to 479.33 ± 44.99 mg/L), reduced pH but very strongly acidic (6.50 ± 0.00 to 4.37 ± 0.06), reduced turbidity (8.96 ± 0.02 to 5.88 ± 0.24 NTU), increased alkalinity but below optimum (13.12 ± 0.01 to 21.59 ± 0.76 mg/L), and reduced colour (55.18 ± 0.03 to 15.10 ± 0.56 Hz). For the heavy metals, only Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr) and Iron (Fe) were within the standard limit of irrigation waters while Cadmium (Cd) and Manganese (Mn) were not. It was, therefore, concluded that though it is evident that the use of sawdust briquette as a filter is effective at reducing TPH in crude oil-contaminated water, the treated water is altogether not suitable for irrigation purposes. Therefore, it was recommended that the sawdust filter be upgraded to attain TPH level standard limit.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/227 Determination of Efficacy of NSPRIDUST® as Maize Protectant in Silo 2022-11-22T21:09:18+00:00 O. A. Akinyera subomi.akinyera@gmail.com O. A. Akinyera subomi.akinyera@gmail.com S. N. Oyewole snoyeengr@gmail.com A. O. Ogunbiyi ty_macdave@yahoo.com M. O. Ogundare ogundaremoses@gmail.com F. F. Olayemi offlinenspri@gmail.com <p><em>The use of conventional silos for grain storage involves application of synthetic pesticides that produce harmful residue after use. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> as a protectant for maize stored in silo with respect to insect control and quality maintenance. Maize treated with NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> in ratio 1:1000 (NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong>: Maize) by mass was stored in 2 experimental silos of 500 kg loaded to 80% of its capacity. The NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> was applied to the maize using NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> applicator. Another set of 2 experimental silos were loaded with untreated maize to capacity to create hermetic condition (control). Five hundred (500) newly emerged unsexed adults of Sitophilus zeamais (primary insect pest of stored maize) were introduced into each silo in batches of one hundred (100) insects to ensure proper distribution of the as the grains were loaded. The maize was stored for 12 months and samples were drawn from the silos monthly to determine insect count, germinability and moisture content, while microbial loads and proximate composition were determined before and after the storage using standard laboratory methods. The result shows that the NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> treated maize had no live insect and suppressed F1 generation throughout the storage period depicting a 100% insect mortality, while insect mortality in the control were 75, 83.33 and 100% for the first, second and subsequent sampling months respectively. The effects of NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>® </sup></strong>on the live insect count, F1 emergence and moisture content of maize grains were statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05). NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> caused reduction in bacteria load and fungal count by 80 and 73% respectively, and both were within the acceptable limit (&lt;0.3 x 10<sup>3</sup> cfu/g). It is an effective protectant for maize in silo storage as it maintained grain quality and suppressed proliferation of microbial loads during the storage. Therefore, the application of NSPRIDUST<strong><sup>®</sup></strong> as a grain protectant could be extended to silo storage of grain.</em></p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##