http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/issue/feed JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 2021-02-20T15:25:11+00:00 Umar B. Bindir ubindir@yahoo.com Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>Welcome to JAET Homepage</strong>&nbsp;<br>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology</em>&nbsp;is peer referred journal with the objectives to explore, develop and elucidate the knowledge of Engineering design and technology, to keep Practitioners and Researchers informed on current issues and best practices, as well as serving as a platform for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and expertise among technology researchers and practitioners. JAET is published by the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE), A Division of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE).</p> <p align="justify"><strong>p-ISSN:&nbsp; 014-2222| e-ISSN: 2651-558X</strong></p> <p align="justify"><strong>PUBLICATIONS:</strong>&nbsp;JUNE and DECEMBER</p> <p align="justify">JAET is currently indexed in&nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;view_op=list_works&amp;authuser=3&amp;gmla=AJsN-F5M4mo5aR-jaOeYTHiNGDn-IK2Taj64KWz8R5_pdgkC3vCq-TfMhEQQMdtXbAvAsL79cKxw0fKiNo6Iyirsbt83XmbEwKvDUxaVGL3SJCqRc_TGxi4&amp;user=zEqae_0AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></p> <p align="justify"><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br>The main aim of the Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET) is to provide a medium for dissemination of high quality Technical and Scientific information emanating from research on Engineering for Agriculture. This, it is hoped will encourage researchers in the area to continue to develop cutting edge technologies for solving the numerous engineering problems facing agriculture in the third world in particular and the world in general.<br>The Journal publishes original research papers, review articles, technical notes and book reviews in Agricultural Engineering and related subjects. Key areas covered by the journal are: Agricultural Power and Machinery; Agricultural Process Engineering; Food Engineering; Post-Harvest Engineering; Soil and Water Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Agricultural Structures and Environmental Control; Waste Management; Aquacultural Engineering; Animal Production Engineering and the Emerging Technology Areas of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Applications, Computer Based Simulation, Instrumentation and Process Control, CAD/CAM Systems, Biotechnology, Biological Engineering, Biosystems Engineering, Bioresources Engineering, Nanotechnology and Renewable Energy. The journal also considers relevant manuscripts from related disciplines such as other fields of Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Physical Sciences, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences.<br>The Journal is published by the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE), A Division of Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). The Editorial Board and NIAE wish to make it clear that statements or views expressed in papers published in this journal are those of the authors and no responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of such statements or views. In the interest of factual recording, occasional reference to manufacturers, trade names and proprietary products may be inevitable. No endorsement of a named product is intended nor is any criticism implied of similar products that are not mentioned.</p> <p>Submission of an article for publication implies that it has not been previously published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The Journal’s peer review policy demands that at least two reviewers give positive recommendations before the paper is accepted for publication. Prospective authors are advised to consult the Guide for Authors which is available in each volume of the Journal. Four copies of the manuscript should be sent to:<br>The Editor-In-Chief Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET)</p> <p>The Editorial Office Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering School of Engineering and Engineering Technology Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola P.M.B 2076, Yola-Nigeria</p> http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/158 National Executive Council Members of NIAE 2021-02-19T17:23:24+00:00 Shuibu Musa shbmusa@fptb.edu.ng <table width="678"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"> <p><strong>S/N</strong></p> </td> <td width="151"> <p><strong>Name</strong></p> </td> <td width="144"> <p><strong>Position</strong></p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><strong>e-mail Address</strong></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p><strong>GSM No.</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>1.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr. Shuibu Musa</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>National Chairman</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:shbmusa@fptb.edu.ng">shbmusa@fptb.edu.ng</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08023558399</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>2.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Prof. J. O. Olaoye</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>National Vice Chairman</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:olaoyejo@yahoo.com">olaoyejo@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08035812797</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>3.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr. J. C. Adama</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>National Secretary</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:adamajoseph@yahoo.com">adamajoseph@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08039146246</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>4.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Prof. B. A. Adewumi</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Immediate Past National Chairman</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:adewumiba@gmail.com">adewumiba@gmail.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08033885382</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>5.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Sabiu M. Bello</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Asst Nat Secretary</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:bellosabiu10@gmail.com">bellosabiu10@gmail.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08034003967</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>6.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Mrs. A. L. Musa-Makama</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>&nbsp;National Treasurer</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:makamamusa@yahoo.com">makamamusa@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08163040556</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>7.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Mrs N.I. Nwagugu</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Publicity Secretary</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:nnenwagugu@gmail.com">nnenwagugu@gmail.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08066733762</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>8.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr Bala Gambo Jahun</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>National Financial Secretary</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:bgjahun@yahoo.com">bgjahun@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08028303417</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>9.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Olokoshe Abimbola</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Internal Auditor I</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:bimbola.olokoshe@gmail.com">bimbola.olokoshe@gmail.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08033735799</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>10.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Mrs. C. A. Adamade</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Internal&nbsp; Auditor II</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:adamadechristiana@yahoo.com">adamadechristiana@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>07057987823</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>11.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr. Yomi Kasali</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Executive Director NCAM</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:yommekasali@yahoo.com">yommekasali@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08033964055</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>12.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Anasudu Joseph</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Publications Secretary</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:engrjoeycash@yahoo.com">engrjoeycash@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08085448466</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>13.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. James David</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Business Manager</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:dafojames@yahoo.com">dafojames@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08168663215</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; 14.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. R. O. Akinbamowo</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Ex-officio I</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:akinba@yahoo.com">akinba@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08034831750</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>15.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr.&nbsp; Mrs. R. O.Yusuf.</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Ex-officio II</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:roysformi@yahoo.com">roysformi@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08055678351</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>16.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr. U B Bindir</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Editor in Chief</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:ubindir@yahoo.com">ubindir@yahoo.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08033156117</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>17.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Prof. Bashir Aliyu/Dep EditorIC</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Reg. Chairman (North East)</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk">bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>07069070152</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>18.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. A. O. Lawal</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Reg. Chairman (North West)</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:aolawal10@yahoo.co.uk">aolawal10@yahoo.co.uk</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08037024747</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>19.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr. B. O. Ugwuishiwu</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Reg. Chairman (South East)</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:bonifaceugwuishiwu@unn.edu.ng">bonifaceugwuishiwu@unn.edu.ng</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08063932350</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>20.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Prof. A. F. Alonge</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Reg. Chairman (South South)</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:falonge6@yahoo.com">falonge6@yahoo.com</a></p> <p><a href="mailto:falonge6@gmail.com">falonge6@gmail.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08033603462</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>21.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Dr. B. I. O.&nbsp; Dahunsi</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Reg. Chairman (South West)</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:deledahunsi@gmail.com">deledahunsi@gmail.com</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>08033261699</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="41"> <p>22.</p> </td> <td width="151"> <p>Engr. Prof. Peter Idah</p> </td> <td width="144"> <p>Reg. Chairman (North Central)</p> </td> <td width="234"> <p><a href="mailto:pabaidah@yahoo.co.uk">pabaidah@yahoo.co.uk</a></p> </td> <td width="108"> <p>07015103920</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/157 EDITORIAL BOARD 2021-02-19T17:20:36+00:00 JAET Editor bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk <p><strong>JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURA</strong><strong>L ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (JAET) </strong></p> <h1><a name="_Toc61966267"></a>EDITORIAL BOARD</h1> <p>Editor-in-Chief</p> <p><strong>Engr Umar B. Bindir</strong> PhD (Cranfield), FNSE, FAEng, FNIAE</p> <p>Babban Mofti Adamawa Emirate Council</p> <p><a href="mailto:ubindir@yahoo.com">ubindir@yahoo.com</a><a href="mailto:/bindir@niae.net">/bindir@niae.net</a>Phone: +234 8033156117</p> <p><strong>Prof B. Umar</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Power and Machinery,</p> <p>Agric and Environmental Engineering Mautech, Yola.</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:bobboiumar@yahoo.co.uk">bobboiumar@yahoo.co.uk</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8023825894</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Eli Mamman</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Emerging Technologies</p> <p>Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:mamman2002ng@yahoo.com">mamman2002ng@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8162311515</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Simon V. Irtwange</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Processing and Post-Harvest Engineering</p> <p>Agricultural Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:svirtwange@yahoo.com">svirtwange@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8035885567</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Engr. Prof.&nbsp; O. Chukwu</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Processing and Post-Harvest Engineering</p> <p>Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria&amp; SSA to Ebonyi State Governor, Ebonyi Government House.</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:ochukwu@futminna.edu.ng">ochukwu@futminna.edu.ng</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone:+234 8035507929</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Idriss Audu</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Soil and Water Engineering</p> <p>Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:idrissaudu@hotmail.com">idrissaudu@hotmail.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8036164804</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. A. A. Olufayo</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Soil and Water Engineering Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:aaolufayo@futa.edu.ng">aaolufayo@futa.edu.ng</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone:&nbsp; +234 8034708846</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. T. M. A Olayanju</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Soil and Water Engineering,</p> <p>Landmark University, Omu-Aran Road, PMB 1001, Ipetu Road, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Email:<a href="mailto:tiyanju@gmail.com">tiyanju@gmail.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8109011102</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof.&nbsp; I. E. Ahaneku</strong> Editor, soil and Water Engineering</p> <p>Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:drahaneku@yahoo.com">drahaneku@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8035726641</p> <p><strong>Prof S. Asoegwu</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Processing and Storage</p> <p>Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:asosab49@yahoo.com">asosab49@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8037271704</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. V. I. O. Ndirika</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Food/Processing Engineering</p> <p>Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Michael Okpara Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia</p> <p>Email: <a href="mailto:vndirika@yahoo.com">vndirika@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8035929353</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof J. M. Ayotamuno&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Editor, Soil and Water Engineering</p> <p>Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, River State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:mjayotamuno@hotmail.com">mjayotamuno@hotmail.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8033403998</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Linus Opara</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Food Engineering Professor &amp; DST/NRF Research Chair in Postharvest Technology, Stellenbosch University, Victoria Street, Stellenbosch, South Africa</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Yahaya Mijinyawa</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Farm Structures and Environmental</p> <p>Control Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.</p> <p>E-mail: ymijinyawa@ui.edu.ng&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8067113661</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Ali M. Abdulkarim&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong> Editor, Agricultural Mechanization</p> <p>Agricultural Engineering Department, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:dralimohd@yahoo.co.uk">dralimohd@yahoo.co.uk</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8033153491</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. D. D. Yusuf</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Emerging Technologies</p> <p>Agricultural Engineering, Ahmadu Bello Univeristy, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:ddyusuf2004@yahoo.com">ddyusuf2004@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8039108908</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dogara Bashir</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Editor, Soil and Water Engineering</p> <p>National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:dogara.nwri@gmail.com">dogara.nwri@gmail.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8034708846</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. A. P. Onwualu</strong> Former Editor-in-chief/Power/Machinery/Processing</p> <p>Materials Science and Engineering Programme, African University of Science and Technology, Abuja, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:ponwualu@yahoo.com">ponwualu@yahoo.com</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone: +234 8037432497</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof Bashir Aliyu, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Editor and head of Journal secretariat</p> <p>Department of Agricultural an Environmental Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria</p> <p>E-mail: <a href="mailto:bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk/aliyu@niae.net">bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk/aliyu@niae.net</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Phone:+234 7069070152</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/160 Table of Contents 2021-02-19T17:47:03+00:00 JAET Editor bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk <h1><a name="_Toc61966269"></a>TABLE OF CONTENTS</h1> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>NIAE National Executive Council Members 2020&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ……&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; i</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Editorial Board&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ……&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ii</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Aims and Scope&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ……&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; iv</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Table of Contents&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ……&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; vi</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Characterization of Castor Biodiesel Blended with Conventional Diesel Fuels</p> <p>Busari R. A., Olaoye J. O., Fadeyibi A., Akpenpuun T. D., Iyanda M. O. and Adebayo S. E. …&nbsp;&nbsp; 1</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>An Improved 16 by 1 Array Photon Counting for Soil Spectroscopy Using Brent Kung Adder&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Ndottiwa A. M., Issak S. B., Musa M. J., and Ahmed A.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 18</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Variability of Residual Salt Content in Selected Farm Sites of Gidan Kwano, Nigeria</p> <p>Musa, J. J., Dada, P. O., Musa, E. T., and Iwuajoku, C. L.&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 36</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Impact of A Split-Gable Greenhouse Microclimate on the Yield of Irish Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum L.)</em> Under Tropical Conditions&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Akpenpuun T. D. and Mijinyawa Y.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 54</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Effects of Tillage Methods and Soil Depths on Soil Chemical Properties in South Eastern Nigeria</p> <p>Nwachukwu C. P., Orakwe L. C., Nwajinka C. O., Umembamalu C. J. and Anizoba D. C.&nbsp;&nbsp; …….79</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Effects of Rainfall Variability on Missing Stands and Yield in Sweet Potato (<em>Ipomoea batatas L.</em>) Lam.)&nbsp; Production</p> <p>Afolabi M. S., Lamidi W. A.&nbsp; and Akoroda M. O.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 95</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Determination of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Tomato Seedlings for Design of a Tomato Transplanter</p> <p>Abubakar A. J., Iya S. A., Aliyu B. and Tashiwa Y. I.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …106</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Performances of Cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em>) at Different Heights of the Prevailing Wind’s Speeds</p> <p>Lamidi W. A., Murtadha M. A. and Afolabi M. S.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …123</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Development and Preliminary Evaluation of Jatropha Curcas Fruit Decorticator</p> <p>Ishola T. A., Busari R. A., Iyanda M. O. and Oyebanji A. I. ……&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …136</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Guide for Authors&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; …148</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/159 Guide for Authors 2021-02-19T17:27:42+00:00 JAET Editor bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk <h1><a name="_Toc61966278"></a>GUIDE FOR AUTHORS</h1> <p><strong>Publication Schedule:</strong> The Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET) is published annually (up to four issues) by the Nigerian Institution of Agricultural Engineers (NIAE), a division of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE).</p> <p>Published articles can be viewed at the institution’s website: <a href="http://www.niae.net">www.niae.net</a>.</p> <p><strong>Manuscript:</strong> The manuscript should be typed double spaced on A4 size in Microsoft word and attached to a mail as a soft copy.</p> <p><strong>Organization of the Manuscript:</strong> The manuscript should be organized in the following order; Title, Author’s name and address including E-mail address and telephone numbers; Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results and Discussion; Conclusion; Notation (If any); Acknowledgments; References. The main headings listed above should be capitalized and be left justified. Sub-sub headings should be in italics. All headings, sub headings, and sub-sub headings should be in bold font. Headings and sub headings should be identified with numbers such as 1; 1.1; 1.1.1 etc. For the sub headings, the first letter of every word should be capitalized.</p> <p><strong>Title:</strong> The title should be as short as possible, usually not more than 14 words. Use words that can be used for indexing. In the case of multiple authors, the names should be identified with superscripted numbers and the addresses listed according to the numbers, eg. A.P. Onwualu<sup>1</sup> and B. Aliyu<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> An abstract not exceeding 400 words should be provided. This should give a short outline of the problems, methods, major findings and recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> There should be keywords that can be used for indexing. A maximum of 5 words is allowed.</p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The introduction should provide background information on the problem including recent or current references to work done by previous researchers. It should end with objectives and contribution to the work.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This section can be very depending on the nature of the paper. For papers involving experiments, the methods, experimental design and details of the procedure should be presented. Rather, authors should refer to other sources. This section should also contain description of equipment and statistical analysis where applicable. For a paper that involves theoretical analysis, this is where the theory is presented.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussions:</strong> Results give details to what have been achieved, presented in descriptive, tabular or graphical forms. Discussion on the other hand, describe ways the data, graphs and other illustrations have served to provide answers to questions and describe problem areas as previously discussed under introduction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Conclusion should present the highlights of the solutions obtained. It should be a brief summary stating what the investigation was about, the major result obtained and whether the result were conclusive and recommendations for further work, if any.</p> <p><strong>Notation:</strong> A list of symbols and abbreviation should be provided even though each of them should be explained in the places where it is used.</p> <p><strong>References:</strong> Follow the name-date system text, example: Ajibola (1992) for a single author; Echiegu and Ghaly (1992) for double authors and Umar et al. (1992) for multiple authors. All references cited must be listed in alphabetical order. References to two or more Papers published in the same year by the same author or authors should be distinguished by appending alphabets to the year e.g. Ige (1990a, 1990b). All references cited in the text must be listed under section “References”. For Journal, the order of listing should be author’s name, year of publication, title of paper, name of Journal, volume number, pages of the articles: for books, the author’s name comes first followed by the date, title of book, edition, publisher, town or city of publication and page or pages involved. Examples are as follows:</p> <p><strong>Journal Articles:</strong> Ezeike, G. O. I. 1992. How to Reference a Journal. J. AgricEngr and Technology. 3(1): 210-205</p> <p><strong>Conference Papers:</strong> Echiegu, E. A. and Onwualu A.P. 1992.Fundamentals of Journal Article Referencing. NSAE paper No 92-0089. Nigerian Society of Engineers Annual Meeting, University of Abuja, Abuja – Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Books:</strong> Ajibola O. 1992.NSAE: book of abstracts. NSAE: Publishers. Oba. Abakiliki, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Book Chapter:</strong> Mohamed S. J., Musa H. and Okonkwo, P. I., Ergonomics of referencing. In: E. I. U. Nwuba (Editor), Ergonomics of Farm Tools. Ebonyi Publishing Company, Oshogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Tables:</strong> Tables should be numbered by Arabic numerals e.g. Table 3 in ascending order as reference is made to them in the text. The same data cannot be shown in both Table and figure. Use table format to create tables.&nbsp; The caption should be self-explanatory, typed in lower case letters (with the first letter of each word capitalized) and placed above the table. Tables must be referred to in the text, and positioned at their appropriate location, not at the end of the paper.</p> <p><strong>Figures:</strong> Illustrations may be in the form of graphs, line drawings, diagrams schematics and photographs. They are numbered in Arabic numerals e.g. Figure 5. The title should be placed below the figure. Figures should be adequately labeled. All figures and photographs should be computer generated or scanned and placed at their appropriate locations, not at the end of the paper.</p> <p><strong>Units:</strong> All units in the text, tables and figures must conform to the International System of units (SI)</p> <p><strong>Reviewing:</strong> All papers will be peer reviewed by the three reviewers to be appointed by the Editors. The editors collate the reviewer’s reports and add their own. The Editor-in-chief’s decision on any paper is final.</p> <p><strong>Off Prints:</strong> A copy of the journal is supplied free of charge to the author(s). Additional reprints can be obtained at current charges.</p> <p><strong>Page Charges:</strong> The Journal charges a processing fee of N1000 and page charges are currently N1000 per journal page. When a paper is found publishable, the author is advised on the page charges but processing fee (non refundable) must be paid on initial paper submission. These charges are subject to change without notice.</p> <p><strong>Submission of Manuscript:</strong> Submission of an article for publication implies that it has not been previously published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The Journal’s peer review policy demands that at least two reviewers give positive recommendations before the paper is accepted for publication. Soft copies of the paper should be sent to:</p> <p><strong>The Editor-In-Chief</strong></p> <p>Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ℅ The Editorial Office&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; School of Engineering and Engineering Technology&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; P.M.B 2076, Yola-Nigeria</p> <p>Papers can also be submitted directly to the Editor-In-Chief or the Technical Editor and head of Journal Secretariat. Those who have access to the internet can submit electronically as an attached file in MS Word to <a href="mailto:ubindir@yahoo.com">ubindir@yahoo.com</a> and copy <a href="mailto:bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk">bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk</a> . All correspondence with respect to status of manuscript should be sent to the Editor at <a href="mailto:bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk">bashirfuty@yahoo.co.uk</a>.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/147 Characterization of Castor Biodiesel Blended with Conventional Diesel Fuels 2021-02-19T17:59:42+00:00 R. A. Busari rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng J. O. Olaoye rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng A. Fadeyibi rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng T. D. Akpenpuun rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng M. O. Iyanda rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng S. E. Adebayo rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng <p>Compression Ignition Engines have proved its usefulness in agriculture, transportation, and power sector. In this research, the physicochemical properties of different blends of castor biodiesel were compared with conventional diesel fuel. Samples of the castor biodiesel prepared using transesterification processwere blended with the conventional biodiesel in different mixed ratios, namely B5, B10, B15, B20, B25,B50 to B100. The physicochemical properties, including density, flash point and kinematic viscosity were determined following standard and international procedures (ASTM). Results show that the B100 has higher density, kinematic viscosity and flash point compared to the conventional diesel at 280 °C. But the calorific value was lower in comparison. A gradual decrease in the density, flash point and kinetic viscosity were observed with a decrease in the biodiesel blends from B100 to B5. This implies that the castor biodiesel can be used as a close substitute for the conventional diesel fuel and has substantial advantages, especially in area of greenhouse control and energy security.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/148 An Improved 16 by 1 Array Photon Counting for Soil Spectroscopy using Brent Kung Adder 2021-02-13T12:32:55+00:00 A. M. Ndottiwa naubakar@gmail.com S. B. Issak naubakar@gmail.com M. J. Musa naubakar@gmail.com A. Ahmed naubakar@gmail.com <p>The traditional process in farming involves many steps of hard labour, which are bush clearing, irrigation and the introduction of manual soil testing. It was evident that the traditional methods of ways of nutrients testing are associated with errors and labour intensive. This paper aim to address the shortcoming by proposing a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based photon counting system using 16 bits parallel adder (Brent Kung) algorithm to ease the process with the precise result than the conventional. The algorithm used permits parallel computation, high speed and is user friendly on low-cost FPGA module. Verilog hardware description language (HDL) was used on the Vivado suite platform for implementation. The simulation was conducted under different conditions by changing the sample signal with various degrees of frequency. It was found that the proposed FPGA based photon counting system has an improvement in frequency of 46% and reduction of 46% Look-Up Table (LUT), 92% reduction of fan-out over the conventional, which has a frequency of 480 MHz through a tradeoff was seen in the total power.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/149 Variability of Residual Salt Content in Selected Farm Sites of Gidan Kwano, Nigeria 2021-02-13T13:25:47+00:00 J. J. Musa johnmusa@futminna.edu.ng P. O. Dada johnmusa@futminna.edu.ng E. T. Musa johnmusa@futminna.edu.ng C. L. Iwuajoku johnmusa@futminna.edu.ng <p>In order to meet the expectation of farmers which is to have a bountiful harvest, various crops need to be cultivated commercially, but soil salinity which is affecting most part of the world, pose serious threat to plant production and the expectation of farmers. Thus, it is valuable, to test the salinity and analyze the chemical parameters of the soils from different farming locations. In the present research, experiments were conducted to assess the seasonal variability of residual soil salt content of selected site in the university farm at GidanKwanoMinna, the soils were analyzed, and some chemical parameters were found to be more, which may be due to the type of fertilizers used in the various sites, the values of the chemical parameters analyzed are pH (which ranges between 6.25 to 6.88), EC (which ranges between 41 to 70µs/cm), Mn (which ranges between 0.13 to 0.33mg/l), Cu (which ranges between 0.10 to 0.23mg/l), Pbwas not observed form the various study locations, P (which ranges between 8.00 to 14.00mg/kg), Na (which ranges between (0.12 to 0.18mol/kg), K ( which ranges between 0.04 to0.16mol/kg), Mg<sup>+ </sup>(which ranges between 1.10 to2.30mol/kg), Ca<sup>+</sup> (which ranges between 1.90 to3.10mol/kg), CEC (which ranges between 1.8 to 4.3) and Fe (which ranges between 0.06 to 0.18). It is therefore recommended that more research be carried out on the chemical applied to the soil and the water use for irrigation. Also maximum amount of water be applied to the farmland to assist in leaching excess salt compound present in the soil.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/150 Impact of a Split-Gable Greenhouse Microclimate on the Yield of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Under Tropical Conditions 2021-02-19T18:03:22+00:00 T. D. Akpenpuun akpenpuun.td@unilorin.edu.ng Y. Mijinyawa y.mijinyawa@mail1.ui.edu.ng <p>Production of Irish potato is limited to a temperate climate. Increasing demand for this crop has necessitated the introduction of other production options. A possible option is the use of controlled environment agriculture. This study was designed to investigate split-gable greenhouse microclimatic conditions for Irish potato production under tropical conditions. The split-gable greenhouse was developed for tropical conditions and equipped with humidifiers and circulating fan for climate control. Data loggers and a weather station were installed in- and outside the greenhouse to monitor the climate. Five varieties of Irish potato (Nicola, Diamant, Bertita, New seed, Okonkwo) were cultivated in- and outside the greenhouse in two rainy- and dry- seasons. Three seedlings of each variety were planted with 10 replicates using Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The air temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and Vapour Pressure Deficit (VPD)of the greenhouse were measured in accordance with standard procedures. Yield obtained were compared with standard yield values. Data were subjected to regression analysis and ANOVA at α<sub>0.05</sub>.Greenhouse floor, wall, roof, glazing, ventilation area and volume were 48.0, 84.0, 52.4, 108.4, 32.8 m<sup>2</sup> and 175.4 m<sup>3</sup>, respectively. The humidifier and fan had capacities 7.4 g of H<sub>2</sub>O/kg of air.h and 2.5 m<sup>3</sup>/s air flow rate, respectively. The thickness and light transmittance of the glazing material was 2 mm and 75%, respectively. The pitches, rises and pitch angles of the split-gable roof were 0.3/0.2, 1.6/1.0 m and 15.1<sup>o</sup>/9.7<sup>o</sup>, respectively. Rainy season temperature, RH and VPD were 23.6±1.1<sup>o</sup>C, 82.3±2.8% and 0.5±0.1 kPa, respectively inside the greenhouse compared with 29.3±1.2<sup>o</sup>C, 78.5±7.3% and 1.2±0.2 kPa outside the greenhouse. Dry season temperature, RH and VPD were 25.5±2.7<sup>o</sup>C, 75.3±2.4% and 0.7±0.3 kPa, respectively inside the greenhouse compared with 36.1±1.9<sup>o</sup>C, 63.12±10.4% and 2.2±0.7 kPa, respectively outside the greenhouse. Greenhouse microclimatic conditions were within the reported threshold of 15-35<sup>o</sup>C, 70-85% and 0.4-1.0 kPa necessary for potato production. Bertita and New seed had the highest yield of 6.4 and 6.1 kgm<sup>-2</sup>, respectively in rainy season and 5.3 and 5.4 kgm<sup>-2</sup>, respectively in the dry season inside the greenhouse. New seed gave the highest yield of 1.7 kgm<sup>-2</sup> outside the greenhouse both in rainy- and dry- seasons, while Okonkwo had the least 0.2 kgm<sup>-2</sup> outside the greenhouse in dry season. Reported equivalent mean yield in au State for the five varieties were in the range 7.6-11.3 kgm<sup>-2</sup>. Climatic data and yield in- and out- side the greenhouse differed significantly. Temperature, RH and VPD had significant interactions with yield. A split-gable greenhouse that provided suitable microclimatic conditions for Irish potato production in tropical conditions was developed.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/152 Effects of Tillage Methods and Soil Depths on Soil Chemical Properties in South Eastern Nigeria 2021-02-13T13:44:31+00:00 C. P. Nwachukwu cp.nwachukwu@unizik.edu.ng L. C. Orakwe cp.nwachukwu@unizik.edu.ng C. O. Nwajinka cp.nwachukwu@unizik.edu.ng C. J. Umembamalu cp.nwachukwu@unizik.edu.ng D. C. Anizoba cp.nwachukwu@unizik.edu.ng <p>Mechanical movement in agricultural land affects soil properties, thereby leading to poor yield. In this study, selected soil chemical properties were assessed under different tillage methods and soil depths at the experimental farm site of the Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. Three tillage practices were involved in this study; conventional tillage- by properly tilling the soil with plough and harrow, conservative tillage- tilling with one tractor pass, and no tillage- without tilling the soil. The soil chemical properties tested were; pH, soil nitrogen, soil potassium, soil phosphorous, soil electrical conductivity and soil organic carbon content. Soil samples were collected from each of the tillage methods at different soil depths; 0-25cm, 25-50cm 50-75cm and 75-100cm soil depths and tested in the laboratory for these soil chemical properties. The effects of tillage methods and soil depths on soil chemical properties were determined using statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA).From the pH result, a mean pH of 7.02, 6.08 and 6.51 were obtained for conservative tillage, conventional tillage and no tillage respectively, for electrical conductivity, a mean electrical conductivity of 52.1µs/cm, 52.9µs/cm and 54.4µs/cm were obtained for conservative tillage, conventional tillage and no tillage respectively. For soil potassium, means of 7.6ppm, 7.79ppm, and 7.82ppm were obtained for conservative tillage, conventional tillage and no tillage respectively. Result of soil organic carbon gave average of 6.8g/kg, 6.4g/kg and 6.8g/kg for conservative tillage, conventional tillage and no tillage respectively, while for soil nitrogen, mean of 1.5g/kg, 1.25g/kg and 1.67 g/kg were obtained for conservative tillage, conventional tillage and no tillage respectively. Result of soil phosphorous gave averages of 5.46mg/kg, 4.77mg/kg and 4.81mg/kg for conservative tillage, no tillage and conventional tillage respectively. The ANOVA result shows that only soil electrical conductivity and soil nitrogen were significant at p≤0.05 level.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/153 Effects of Rainfall Variability on Missing Stands and Yield in Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Production 2021-02-19T18:05:20+00:00 M. S. Afolabi afolabimike97@gmail.com W. A. Lamidi afolabimike97@gmail.com M. O. Akoroda afolabimike97@gmail.com <p>Sweet potato is grown across a wide range of agro ecological zones. In Nigeria, tuber yields differ considerably across agro ecological zones and even from farmer to farmer. This wide variation in tuber yields is a matter of concern because it means that the total output of the crop is lower than it should be. This variation could be as a result of factors such as inadequate supply of water from either rainfall or irrigation, temperature and humidity level of the location, soil fertility, relative humidity and varieties of the sweet potato plant. In order to better understand the variations in sweet potato tuber yield in different locations and seasons, results from 10 sweet potato varieties from four different environments over two years were examined. Field experiments were conducted at the same time in four locations (Igbon via Ejigbo (Osun State), Ibadan (Oyo State), Idofian and Ilorin (Kwara State) for two growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Ejigbo (Osun State) and Ibadan (Oyo State) belong to the rainforest zone while Idofian and Ilorin (Kwara State) belong to southern guinea savannah. Rainfall data for the period of the experiment were obtained from the metrological stations in these areas. At four weeks after planting data was taken on dead plants. Also, at harvest data on the yields of the sweet potato from the four locations were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. The estimation of field condition assessment was good for Ibadan and Igbon due to high amount of rainfall in the area. Also, the sweet potato tuber yield was consistently higher for all the varieties in this rainfall zone; however, the situation is contrary in Ilorin and Idofian. As a result, rainfall variability (rainfall amount) was identified as a factor that could lead to missing stands (plant that failed to germinate and could not survive after planting) and poor yield. It is recommended that care should be taken by sweet potato growers to address the factor so as to increase productivity of their sweet potato production.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/154 Determination of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Tomato Seedlings for Design of a Tomato Transplanter 2021-02-13T14:18:56+00:00 A. J. Abubakar abubakarjilima@mautech.edu.ng S. A. Iya abubakarjilima@mautech.edu.ng B. Aliyu abubakarjilima@mautech.edu.ng Y. I. Tashiwa abubakarjilima@mautech.edu.ng <p>Transplanting operation is an important phase in the production of Tomato.&nbsp; The process is carried out manually in Nigeria accounting for over 40% of the total working hours in its production. To address these problems, several mechanical transplanting machines have been developed to transplant various plants or crops in the developed countries.&nbsp; However, these transplanters were designed considering prevailing conditions and the plant or crop under study.&nbsp; These transplanters are expensive to procure by farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, there is need for engineers in the developing nations to develop transplanting machines that will suit the farming methods and bearing in mind materials availability, cost and operability.&nbsp; Though, in designing such machines for transplanting Tomato, the physical and mechanical properties of the Tomato seedling are required. In this work the physical and mechanical properties (stem thickness, height, weight, spread diameter, angle of friction, frictional coefficient, impact properties, compressive properties and tensile properties) of the seedling of the most commonly grown Tomato variety (Roma VF) in Nigeria were determined. The height, weight, stem thickness and spread diameter of the seedlings were found to be 243.35 ± 50 mm, 6.28 ± 3.42 g, 3.53 ± 1.07 mm and 70.08 ± 8 mm respectively while the impact energy was found to be 1.32 ± 0.38 J. The frictional angles and coefficient of friction when the seedlings were laid vertically on Mild steel, Aluminum and Galvanized sheets are 44.43 ± 5<sup>o</sup> and 0.99 ± 0.18, 42.96 ± 4.85<sup>o</sup> and 0.94 ± 0.16 and 43.73 ± 5.10<sup>o</sup> and 0.96 ± 0.17 respectively and when laid horizontally on Mild steel, Aluminum and Galvanized sheets the values are 40.63 ± 3.50<sup>o</sup>and 0.86 ± 0.11, 40.08 ± 2.75<sup>o</sup> and 0.84 ± 0.09 and 39.58 ± 6.10<sup>o</sup> and 0.83 ± 0.20 respectively. The Tensile force, stain, stress and Young’s Modulus in Tension for the seedlings were found to be 3.50 ± 1.00 N, 15.67 ± 5.13 %, 1.11 ± 0.32 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and 7.36 ± 2.80 N/mm<sup>2</sup>.&nbsp; While the maximum applied force the seedling can withstand in compression is 11.64 ± 3.73 N with maximum deflection and strain of 0.69 ± 0.24 mm and 34.39 ± 12.23 % respectively</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/155 Performances of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) at Different Heights of the Prevailing Wind's Speeds 2021-02-20T15:25:11+00:00 W. A. Lamidi wasiu.agunbiade@uniosun.edu.ng M. A. Murtadha wasiu.agunbiade@uniosun.edu.ng M. S. Afolabi wasiu.agunbiade@uniosun.edu.ng <p>Cucumber fruit yield and its characters are dependent on wind speed and wind heights but the effects have not been clearly determined, hence this research was carried out to assess effects of prevailing wind on cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em>) fruit yield and some of its morphological characters using different wind heights. Three cucumber varieties used in the research were: Nagano F<sub>1</sub>, Poinsett and Marketmore. Three different heights of wind level measured were 0 m, 1 m, and 2 m, each at 90<sup>0</sup> to the direction of the prevailing wind. At three replicates, the factorial design was 3× 3× 3. Parameters measured were plant height and number of branch plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of leaf plant<sup>-1</sup> and leaf area, number of fruit plant<sup>-1</sup>, fruit length, fruit girth and vine length. Also, parameters of cucumber measured include number of male flower, number of days to male flowering, number of female flowers and number of days to female flowering, days to first fruiting and fruit yield plant<sup>-1</sup>. The result revealed a highly significant variety by treatment interaction for days to male flowering (range 16.80±0.81 to 18.85±1.22). Nagano F<sub>1</sub> portrayed the shortest days to male flowering (16.60±1.42 at 2 m wind height), the same Nagano F<sub>1</sub>, had the highest days to male flowering (18.85±1.22 at 0 m wind height) while Nagano F<sub>1</sub> displayed the shortest days to female flowering (3.07±0.41 at 2 m wind height) and 25days to first fruiting. Nagano F<sub>1</sub>had highest fruit yield plant<sup>-1</sup>, 72.71±0.22 compare to Marketmore highest fruit yield of 75.77±0.19 tha<sup>-1</sup>. In all, cumulative yield ranges between 69 tha<sup>-1</sup> and 76 tha<sup>-1</sup>.There was linear increase in the growth parameters, in the yield components and in the cumulative yield from 0 m to 1 m and to 2 m wind heights in all the varieties. Wind speed and wind heights affect the performances of the cucumber via growth parameters, yield components and cumulative yields.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/156 Development and Preliminary Evaluation of Jatropha curcas Fruit Decorticator 2021-02-13T14:50:00+00:00 T. A. Ishola rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng R. A. Busari rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng M. O. Iyanda rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng I. Oyebanji rasheed.busari@kwasu.edu.ng <p>The local ways of decorticating Jatropha Curcas fruits using mortar and pestle or by cracking with hand is time consuming, unhygienic, labour intensive and grossly inadequate to meet the present demand of Jatropha seeds processing and other value-added products in the country as the oil from the seeds can serve as alternative fuel for diesel engines. To overcome these challenges, variables that influence this very important decorticating process require proper attention. A Jatropha Curcas fruit decorticator was designed and it consists of feed hopper, threshing unit, frame, bearings, and shell outlets. The design of the machine was based on the selected engineering properties of Jatropha fruits and all materials used for the construction were sourced locally. The machine was evaluated for its performance and data obtained from the test were analyzed statistically with software SPSS 18 using a 3×3 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The results showed that the highest decorticating and cleaning efficiencies were 93.9 % and 98.4 %&nbsp; respectively while the highest percentage seed loss and mechanical damage index were 12.5 % and 6.3 %&nbsp; respectively. The study also revealed that the decorticating efficiency, cleaning efficiency, seed loss and mechanical damage index increased with increase in decorticating speed. This machine could make large scale production of biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas achievable.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##