Determination of Some Physical Properties of Canarium Schweinfurthii Engl Nuts from Nigeria
J. C. Ehiem
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Resources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
V. I. O. Ndirika
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Resources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
U. N. Onwuka
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Resources Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
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Keywords

Properties
Canarium schweinfurthii
Nuts
Density
Shape

How to Cite

Ehiem, J., Ndirika, V., & Onwuka, U. (2022). Determination of Some Physical Properties of Canarium Schweinfurthii Engl Nuts from Nigeria. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, 27(1), 1 - 14. Retrieved from http://jaet.com.ng/index.php/Jaet/article/view/214

Abstract

Physical properties of three varieties of Canarium schweinfurthii nuts (Canarium schweinfurthii short (CSHTS), Canarium schweinfurthii long (CSHTL) and Canarium schweinfurthii large (CSHTLRG)) were studied at three different moisture contents (10.20%, 17.23% and 25.06%) wet basis. The values of physical parameters studied were obtained experimentally and analyzed using ANOVA at 5% alpha level. The results showed that the principal dimensions of large nuts ranged from 32.29 - 32.91 mm (major diameter), 16.07 - 16.55 mm (intermediate diameter) and 15.69 - 16.26 mm (minor diameter).  The values of sphericity, mass and density of large nuts also ranged from 0.62 – 0.63, 4.32 - 4.90 g and 1.27 – 1.21 g/cm3 respectively. The long nuts had 36.75 - 37.36 mm (major diameter), 13.67 - 13.19 mm (intermediate diameter) and 13.18 - 12.89 mm (minor diameter). The sphericity ranged from 0.50 – 0.51, mass from 2.79 - 3.14 g and density from 1.14 – 1.07 gcm-3.  The major diameter of the short nuts ranged from 23.26 - 23.87 mm, intermediate diameter from 10.93 - 11.24 mm and minor diameter from 10.76 - 11.04 mm. The values of sphericity ranged from 0.60 – 0.62, mass from 1.21 - 1.43 g and density from 1.14 – 1.06 gcm-3. The nuts are oblong shaped with surface areas of 336.7 mm2, 301.55 mm2 and 164.28 mm2 for large, long and short varieties respectively. Moisture content had no effect on the geometric dimensions but significantly (5%) affected mass, density and surfaces area. The porosity of all the nut varieties studied decreased as moisture level increased and the density values were higher than one, hence cannot be separated by floating. Rubber surface had the highest coefficient of friction than the other material surfaces studied. All physical parameters investigated had good relationship (high R2 values) with moisture content. These results are essential in design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling this product.

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